Single Camera Production uses only one camera to capture all the different angles and shots for the production, for example a film or television series. When using this type of technique, it uses up a lot more time as each scene has to be repeated a certain number of times to achieve different angles and shots. However, this means that the shots would be more flexible as there would only be one camera to focus on and to move around with. In addition, as it involves only one camera, it is a lot cheaper in contrast of having more cameras at a time. Single camera production is more common in film than television as the scenes in films can be repeated multiple times as there are actors involved but in television, most of the scenes and reactions from the audience are live which means that they would not be able to exactly recreate the reaction and situation which would mean that they would need to use multiple cameras. An example of a show using multiple cameras might include shows such as The X Factor and Britain’s Got Talent and an example of single camera production might include The Walking Dead and The Flash. By using a single camera, the director would have to shoot the scene and focus on each individual actor so when it is edited at the end, they can flip between each shot to get all the actors in the scene and in sync.
Linear and non-linear – In narrative writing, the production tells the story of what is happening for the reader or audience. This can be represented in two ways, linear and non-linear narrative. Linear is where the structure of the production has a beginning, middle and end. The production would slowly build up tension in between the start and the middle as the situation escalates to the climax which tend to be at the start of the production.
An example of this is The Martian as it starts off with the main character going off into space to go to mars, building shelter and an eco system there which gets destroyed by the winds and rocks then gets rescued by the people from earth after he is able to contact them. This film has a beginning, middle and end to it with the climax of the film being in the middle. However, non-linear narrative is the opposite with the production possibly starting with in the middle of the production with the height of the conflict then proceeds to the beginning it could include having flash backs, being in non chronological order or can also have no ending to it. This is done to keep the audience on their toes so they are constantly interested in the production while also wanting to know what happens next or how something happened.
An example of this is The Hangover. It begins with a group of friends partying and having fun but then they get drunk and most of the night is not remembered by any of them with one friend missing which means that they would have to work backwards to find their friends and find out what they’ve done.
Open/close endings – Opening endings is where the production has no sense of it ending which would mean that there could be many episodes with the story linking into each one or the film having a cliff hanger which would lead to another film being made
An example of this is The Hobbit (film) or Coronation Street (soap opera). This is because The Hobbit has 3 films that link up to each other as the story carries on from one film to another as the ending of the first two films have cliff hangers to them which would mean that there would be a sequel. Furthermore, an open ending would include more characters than a production that has a close ending as there will be more than one story line which would mean that characters would shift in and out depending on the situation of the narrative. In contrast, a close ending has a fixed ending to it which would allow the audience to know what they are watching as the narrative would set an idea into the audience’s mind of what could occur at the end of the production. Also, as there would only be a small number of central characters, the audience would also be able to predict who each character is by identifying their roles in the production with a hierarchy of importance, such as the hero, villain, victim ect.
An example of this is independence day (Film). This is because the film has a beginning, middle and end to it with no cliff hanger or something that could portray there being a sequel to the film. This would mean that this film has a close ending to it and not an open ending.
A realist narrative is an advert that can be portrayed to occur in real life as it in non-fictional. This would mean that it would not include many SFX such as lasers and aliens but includes situations such as war or a simple advert to show the new Beats Headphones. In this example of an advert, they are showing how the iPhone 4S can be used with the new feature called “Siri”. The people in the advert ask the phone normal questions or phrases that people would say to each other or search up on google with Siri giving them the answers that they need.
Anti-realist narrative is an advert that includes features that don’t occur on a day-to-day basis. An example of this could include talking animals or a fictional storyline. In this example, the situation shown in the advert was a fictional storyline of a well-known story called “three little pigs” which had their houses blown down by a bad wolf. It is simple to see that this advert is surreal as three of the people are pigs which would not happen in a real life but they evolve the story into the pigs living in modern-day with news articles and outrage on how the three pigs we’re victims and not the criminal.
Series – This is a daily or weekly program with the same cast and format that continues from the episode before explaining what was going to happen next from the last episode. The story in a series can last many episodes as it flows from each episode to another but the story does have an ending but sometimes the story continues to the next season if there is a cliff hanger at the end of the last season. This is done to make the audience want to keep on watching the next season when it would come out. An example of this is The Walking Dead. This is because the show has 6 seasons with around 10 episodes in each season with a different situation in each season but it all flows throughout each episode.
Serial – This is a program with no set date of when the story ends or when a new one begins as they are continuous with the episodes not being planned months ahead of time but they are run throughout the year. The stories can begin and end in one episode or carry onto several. An example of a serial is Eastenders as this program constantly runs through the year with no big breaks inbetween the seasons with new characters constantly coming in and out of each episode.
Single Drama – A single drama is when a television show only has one or two episodes instead of a continuous series. An example of this is No Evil. This is a show that only contained one episode with a brief story and short story that was posted on television.
The Flash (TV Series)
The Flash is a Fantasy, action and crime based non-linear TV series that revolves around a guy with powers that gives him superhuman speed to help him defeat his enemies and stop crime while also living a normal life of a forensic scientist. The series is open-ended to keep the audience intrigued at the end of each episode as something unexpected happens to let the audience know that there will be more in the next episode.
In this TV series, nearly all the scenes are captured using a single camera. An example of this is a long shot in the scene where The Flash saved his mum from being murdered in the past from one of his enemies. The director uses a long shot to portray how the house was damaged by The Flash and his enemy fighting while also showing the body languages of The Flash and his mother. As you can see, he is trying to calm his mother down as she does not know what is happening as he is her son from the future.
The lighting used in this scene is quite dark with a slight amount of lighting coming from the windows with a slight glow from the ceiling lamp and the lamp on the table in the distance as something terrible just occurred but there is also some light on his mother which could show a glimmer of hope in the situation.
The director uses a close up of the mothers face to show her facial expression and emotion of this situation which is a frightened but slightly relieved expression on her face as this man just saved her from being murdered. The close up shot is then switched to The Flash’s face with the camera also being slightly behind his mother to show his calm and reliefed facial expression after saying “you’re safe now” to her.
In this scene, there’s an aerial shot of the city with The Flash running through it with him leaving an orange streak behind him to let the audience know where he is and how fast he is going through the city.
The shot then switches to The Flash’s point of view to exaggerate more on the speed of how fast he is going and to give the audience a sense of speed with blurs on the lens while passing through traffic with the camera tilting left and right as he runs past the cars. This gives more of a realistic feel to the situation.
In this scene, The Flash’s “father” has a flashback of how it was like when Barry (The Flash) was in a coma before getting his powers. A flashback is made to give the audience more information on the current events of the narrative. It also allows the audience to gain an insight on the characters situation and help give a background to its current conflict. In flashbacks, the colour correction in the production tend to change and give more a glow and increase the brightness and saturation or decrease it. In this example, the colour correction was changed to add more of a glow to the brighter colours and add lens flares with a blue tint to give the effect of a dream. It also allows the audience to visually see the difference between its current time and the flashback.
Daredevil (TV Series)
In this scene of daredevil, the director uses one shot to capture the whole fight scene in one take with the camera following and moving around the character with no cuts. This is a single camera technique that creates a point of view of the character to the audience to make them feel more engaged with the scene, aswell as creating more tension. The camera might flip back and forth different angles and characters to capture more of whats going on but in this scene, the camera is a constant shot. Furhtermore, in some parts of this scene, the camera is just in the hallway while everyone is fighting in the rooms which could create a sense of mystery for the audience as they might want to know whats exactly happening inside. In addition, the camera shots are mostly long shots as they want to capture as action as possible while also capturing some medium shots to focus on the facial expressions at parts. The director uses this final scene of the episode as a open ending to want to see what happens after he rescues the boy in the other room.
Breaking bad is a crime drama serial show that is realistic and non-linear as the frames are cut at different times which tend to be at the beggining of the episode. The director does this to confuse the audience but this also creates a sense of mystery which makes them want to know what happens next as they keep watching.
The breaking bad team builds a scene using many different elements, these include editing, sound, scripting, acting and camera work. These elements together creates a more interesting and all round better show. An example of this is where Walter white loses his mind. This scene is created mainly on sound and camera shots with great acting to make the scene tense. The events of Walter’s menacing laughter to Skylar’s terrified face makes the scene a lot more scary with the strong heart beat in the background as well as the phone ringing momentarily after to keep the audience on the edge of their seats in that moment in time. In the final scene, the camera moves upwards away from Walter to create a sense of loneliness with the pitch of the background sound increasing as time goes on.
Lost is a drama series with a non-linear storyline with multiple editing techniques to make it an attractive show. A lot of cut-cross shots are used to create mystery and suspense.
In this scene the director uses a medium ariel shot to capture the actors current situation with blood on his hands and looking into the sky for hope but as the camera is on an ariel shot, it looks like he is looking into the camera.
Most of the scenes needs to be captures outside as a lot of space is needed but natural light does not give the right effect at times with the light ruining the darkish atmosphere at times. The directors avoids this by using bright lights to create an unnatural light. The dim lighting exposes the darkness and emphasises the dirty setting which the character is in. In this scene, it is visible that there is a unnatural light the left side of the boys face to help capture his facial expression with the close up shot. Without the bright light, it would be harder to see the boys facial expression but as this is a close up shot, it is needed.
In conclusion, I found out that single camera technique is good as it is cheaper than having multiple cameras as well as the actors being able to focus on 1 camera at a time with different shots instead of having to think of every angle at once. However, it is a lot more time consuming than using multiple cameras as each scene has to be repeating exactly the same many times. This would also mean that as it takes longer, the amount of money used for the team and actors are higher.